Developer notes

There are several experiences for Captcha:

  • A non-interactive image in a table row, where the whole table row acts like a button.
  • A single interactive element, like an image button
  • An audio challenge as an equivalent experience to the image challenge When selecting the type of Captcha, do not limit the options to only cognitive function tests (e.g. remembering or transcribing a word, or recognizing a picture the website provided). When possible, leverage recommended techniques recommended by the W3C such as email link authentication, 3rd party authentication, or 2 factor authentication.



  • Alt text on the image that describes its purpose.
  • Name describes the purpose of the control and matches any visible text in image
  • Programmatic name of each interactive component in audio challenge is announced.

Name describes the purpose of the control

iOS Options

  • Set a label in Interface Builder in the Identity Inspector
  • Group visible text label and the control in the same view container: accessibilityFrameInContainerSpace
  • setTitle( ) method
  • If no visible label, use accessibilityLabel on control
  • Hint is used only if the results of interacting with it are not obvious from the control’s label.
  • Match visible label, if any
  • To hide labels from VoiceOver announcements, uncheck the Accessibility Enabled checkbox in the Identity Inspector
  • If hiding visible label, use accessibilityLabel on control

Android Options

  • android:text XML attribute
  • Optional: use contentDescription for a more descriptive name, depending on type of view and for elements without a visible label.
  • contentDescription overrides android:text

  • Use labelFor attribute to connect the visible label to the control



  • Identifies as an image
  • Identifies as an image button
  • Each interactive component in audio challenge identifies as a button or text field



  • If in a table row, group all text and elements in the table row, identifying each elements name. The whole table row should be in one swipe, announcing as “button” or “double tap to activate”. There can be only one interactive element in a table row.

  • iOS
    • accessibilityFrame
    • accessibilityFrameInContainerSpace
    • Only the container class is an accessible element
  • Android
    • ViewGroup
    • Set the container object’s android:screenReaderFocusable attribute to true, and each inner object’s android:focusable attribute to false. In doing so, accessibility services can present the inner elements’ content descriptions/names, one after the other, in a single announcement.



  • If grouped in table row, it’s possible for the whole row to have a dimmed/disabled state, or the captcha button disabled separately
  • Image button can have a disabled state (dimmed/disabled)
  • Buttons in audio challenge can have a disabled state (dimmed/disabled)



1) Focus is on the whole table row. There should be no focus on any single element, if the whole table row is grouped together, as long as there is only one interactive element per row.

2) The image button receives focus by swipe or touch

3) Each element in audio challenge receives focus by swipe or touch. User is confined inside a modal, if presented

Only manage focus when needed. Primarily, let the device manage default focus.
Consider how focus should be managed between child elements and their parent views.

iOS Options

  • accessibilityElementIsFocused
  • isAccessibilityElement - Yes, if the element can respond to user input
  • To move screen reader focus to newly revealed content: UIAccessibilityLayoutChangedNotification
  • To NOT move focus, but announce new content: UIAccessibilityAnnouncementNotification

Android Options

  • android:focusable=true
  • android=clickable=true
  • Implement an onClick( ) event handler for keyboard, not onTouch( )
  • nextFocusDown
  • nextFocusUp
  • nextFocusRight
  • nextFocusLeft
  • accessibilityTraversalBefore (or after)
  • To move screen reader focus to newly revealed content: Type_View_Focused
  • To NOT move focus, but announce new content: accessibilityLiveRegion
  • To hide controls: Important_For _Accessibility_NO